Medical Device Glossary

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  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, commonly abbreviated as GERD, refers to a chronic condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, leading to irritation and potential complications. This backward movement occurs due to a weakened or dysfunctional lower esophageal sphincter (LES),(...) Read More
  • The Absolute Pro Vascular Self-Expanding Stent System is a medical device used to treat peripheral artery disease (PAD). The device is designed to open blocked arteries and improve blood flow. The stent is made of a nitinol alloy and is coated with a drug-eluting polymer. The stent is inserted(...) Read More
  • A common and unusual disorder in which stomach acid rises into the esophagus. This happens when the valve that separates the contents of the stomach from the esophagus fails to operate properly. Sometimes acid reflux progresses to GERD, a more severe form of reflux. The most common symptom(...) Read More
  • ACURATE neo2 is a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) device. TAVR is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to replace a diseased aortic valve in the heart. The ACURATE neo2 device is designed to be inserted through a small incision in the patient's leg or chest and guided to(...) Read More
  • Acute Renal Failure (ARF), also known as Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), is a sudden and often temporary loss of kidney function, which results in the inability of the kidneys to filter waste products from the blood effectively. This condition can develop rapidly over a few hours or days, making(...) Read More
  • Acute urinary retention is the most common cause of the partial or complete inability to empty the bladder. The condition is also called urethral obstruction or urinary obstruction syndrome. Rapid urinary retention occurs when your bladder’s muscle is suddenly too weak to get rid of its(...) Read More
  • Aging is a complex and multifaceted process that affects all living organisms. It is characterized by a gradual decline in physiological functions, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases and ultimately, death. The science of aging, known as gerontology, seeks to understand the(...) Read More
  • Altis® is a surgical mesh product developed by Coloplast, a global medical device company, for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. SUI is a condition in which urine leaks out of the bladder during physical activity, such as coughing, sneezing, or(...) Read More
  • Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults, leading to severe cognitive decline and memory loss. It is the most common cause of dementia, a broad term used to describe a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily(...) Read More
  • Ambulatory care encompasses a wide variety of medical services delivered by a physician, nurse practitioner, or other health care professional in the patient's home or community. Examples of patient-focused ambulatory care include preventive care and routine examinations (such as annual(...) Read More
  • Angiography is a test that uses x-rays to show how blood moves through the blood vessels of your heart and throughout your body. The x-rays are taken after you have received an injection of fluid called a contrast agent (a substance that can be seen on the x-rays). Angiography can help(...) Read More
  • Angioplasty is a procedure used to remove a blockage or obstruction in your arteries. During an angioplasty procedure, an interventional cardiologist inserts a balloon into your artery and then inflates it with air or saline solution. The balloon helps open up the narrowed or blocked area of(...) Read More
  • You've probably heard of angiotensin. It's a hormone that plays a big role in the regulation of blood pressure. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are drugs used to treat high blood pressure by blocking the effects of angiotensin. Angiotensin II is a hormone that causes the muscles around(...) Read More
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers help relax your veins and arteries to lower your blood pressure and make it easier for your heart to pump blood. There are many different types and brands of angiotensin II receptor blockers on the market today. Some of the more popular brands include Cozaar,(...) Read More
  • An anticoagulant is a chemical that helps prevent blood clots. When a blood clot forms, it can block the flow of blood to vital organs and tissues, potentially causing serious health problems. Anticoagulants work by keeping the blood from clotting. There are several different types of(...) Read More
  • Aortic valve stenosis is a condition in which the aortic valve in the heart becomes narrow, making it difficult for blood to flow from the left ventricle into the aorta. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and fainting. In severe cases, it can also(...) Read More
  • Sleep Apnea is a condition characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. These pauses can last for a very brief period, or they can extend for so long that the amount of oxygen in the blood drops dangerously low. Apnea can occur in both adults and children, but it is most common in(...) Read More
  • Aris® is a type of sling that is designed to provide support for the urethra. It is made from a synthetic material called polypropylene and is implanted using a surgical technique called transobturator. Aris is a permanent implant and has a low level of elasticity. It is designed with a(...) Read More
  • Aromatherapy is a holistic healing treatment that uses natural plant extracts to promote health and well-being. Sometimes referred to as essential oil therapy, aromatherapy uses aromatic essential oils medicinally to improve the health of the body, mind, and spirit. It enhances both physical(...) Read More
  • Arrhythmias refer to abnormal heart rhythms or irregular heartbeats. These deviations from the normal heartbeat pattern can occur in various ways, including the heart beating too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or with an irregular rhythm. Arrhythmias can affect the atria (upper(...) Read More
  • Arteriosclerosis is a condition in which the arteries' walls stiffen and lose flexibility. It is also referred to as artery stiffening on occasion. When the muscle wall of arteries hardens due to excessive blood pressure, or when cholesterol-rich plaque accumulates on the inner lining of(...) Read More
  • Asphyxia refers to a potentially fatal lack of oxygen. This can be brought on by flooding, choking, or a blockage of the airways. In some cases, asphyxia can also be caused by the inhalation of toxic gases. Symptoms of asphyxia include unconsciousness, convulsions, and eventually death if not(...) Read More
  • The treatment of obesity is always changing, with new techniques being developed and existing ones being altered. One such technique that is currently being developed is Aspire Assist. This technique involves placing a small tube in the stomach that is connected to an external pump. The pump(...) Read More
  • Asthmatic refers to asthma, a chronic respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the airways, leading to recurring episodes of breathlessness, wheezing, chest tightness, and coughing. Asthma is often associated with heightened sensitivity to certain triggers, such as asthma allergy(...) Read More
  • Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib), also known as AFib or AF, is an irregular and often very rapid heart rhythm. It occurs when the heart’s upper chambers (the atria) beat chaotically and irregularly, out of sync with the lower heart chambers (the ventricles). Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib) This(...) Read More
  • Atrio-Ventricular (AV) block is a type of heart block that occurs when the electrical signals that control the heart's rhythm are disrupted. It is caused by a problem with the electrical conduction system of the heart, which is responsible for sending electrical signals from the atria to the(...) Read More
  • The AV node, or the atrioventricular node, is a part of the heart's electrical system that connects the atria and the ventricles. It is located near the center of the heart, on the right side of the interatrial septum. The AV node receives the electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node,(...) Read More
  • Aveir VR (also known as Avegraft VR ) is a type of endovascular stent graft used in the treatment of aortic aneurysms. An aortic aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of the aorta, the main blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body, that can balloon out and(...) Read More
  • Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal condition that arises when the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted, leading to an overgrowth of certain types of bacteria. It's not considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI) but can increase the risk of developing an STI,(...) Read More
  • Balloon angioplasty is a medical procedure used to widen narrowed or blocked blood vessels, particularly those in the heart or legs. The procedure is performed by inserting a small, deflated balloon on the end of a catheter into the affected blood vessel. Once the balloon is in place, it is(...) Read More
  • Bariatric Resection is a weight loss procedure meant to help overweight and obese people shed pounds and keep them off. It is also known as weight loss surgery, or bariatric surgery for short. Weight loss surgery has become a popular alternative to diet and exercise for people who are(...) Read More
  • The barium swallow is a test that allows doctors to examine the esophagus and stomach. It is also known as a double contrast study. A barium swallow test is often used to evaluate the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum after surgery or injury. It can also be used to determine if there is an(...) Read More
  • Barostim is a device that uses electrical impulses to stimulate the baroreceptors in the blood vessels. Baroreceptors are specialized nerve cells that detect changes in blood pressure and transmit that information to the brain. By stimulating these receptors, the Barostim device aims to(...) Read More
  • A baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) is an ECG that is performed primarily to establish a patient's normal ECG pattern so that any changes in the ECG can be compared to the baseline ECG. Baseline ECGs are often performed with other tests, such as stress tests, Holter monitors, or event monitors.(...) Read More
  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is the medical term used to describe enlarged prostate. It is highly recommended to visit a doctor if you experience symptoms such as increased urination, difficult and painful urination, feeling of incomplete emptying after urinating, reduced flow of urine,(...) Read More
  • The Bernstein test is a diagnostic procedure that simulates the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) by dripping a mild acid solution into the lower esophagus. It is used to confirm or rule out GERD as the cause of chest pain, heartburn, or other discomforts. The test is also(...) Read More
  • Beta-agonist drugs are used to treat asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory ailments. This class of drugs works by relaxing the muscles of the airways, opening up the passageways in a patient's lungs, and allowing the patient to breathe easier. While it is(...) Read More
  • Bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) is a form of pressure therapy that is used to treat obstructive sleep apnea at the home, rather than in a hospital or medical facility. It is intended for patients who have a high risk of complications and cannot tolerate the more rigorous demands of(...) Read More
  • Bloating is a common and often uncomfortable condition characterized by a feeling of fullness or swelling in the abdominal area. It can be accompanied by other symptoms such as gas, abdominal discomfort, and a visibly distended abdomen. Bloating can affect anyone and may be caused by various(...) Read More
  • Blood glucose level, also known as blood sugar level, refers to the concentration of glucose (a type of sugar) present in the bloodstream. It is an essential parameter in understanding and managing one's metabolic health. Blood glucose levels are typically measured in milligrams of glucose per(...) Read More
  • Blood oxygen refers to the level of oxygen saturation in the blood, which indicates the amount of oxygen being carried by the red blood cells. The oxygen is carried by hemoglobin, a protein in the red blood cells that binds to the oxygen in the lungs and releases it to the tissues throughout(...) Read More
  • Blood pressure is the force of blood against the walls of arteries as it circulates through the body. It is typically measured using two numbers: systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats and pumps blood(...) Read More
  • A bone scan is a nuclear medicine test that uses a radioactive tracer to examine your bones for signs of disease. A small amount of radioactive material, called a tracer, is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream to the bones. The scan can detect problems such as damaged,(...) Read More
  • Bonebridge is an ear implant that uses bone conduction technology to transmit sound directly to the inner ear. It is designed to help people with hearing loss to hear better. The device is surgically implanted behind the ear and works by vibrating the bones of the skull, which then transmit(...) Read More
  • BOTOX, short for Botulinum Toxin, is a neurotoxic protein derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In the medical field, it's used primarily for cosmetic purposes to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles. It works by blocking nerve signals in(...) Read More
  • Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy that delivers radiation from a source that is inside the body. It is used to treat tumors that are close to the skin’s surface, such as those in the nose, cervix, or ears. Brachytherapy also treats cancers that are close to the spine or pelvis, above the(...) Read More
  • Bradycardia is a medical condition in which the heart rate is abnormally slow, usually below 60 beats per minute. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, medical conditions, and lifestyle factors. Symptoms of bradycardia can include fatigue, dizziness,(...) Read More
  • The brain and nervous system constitute the central hub for processing and transmitting information throughout the body, orchestrating a complex network of functions that enable thought, perception, movement, and homeostasis. This intricate system is the cornerstone of human physiology and(...) Read More
  • Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure that involves using breast implants or fat from other parts of the body to increase the size of the breasts or restore their shape. The procedure is also sometimes referred to as breast enlargement or breast enhancement. Breast augmentation is(...) Read More
  • Brio Neurostim is a cutting-edge brain stimulation technology that offers a non-invasive, safe, and effective way to improve cognitive function and treat neurological conditions. The FDA-cleared device uses transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to deliver low-level electrical currents(...) Read More
  • Bulkamid is a recently developed treatment option for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), which can cause bladder leaks. It is a minimally invasive procedure that does not involve surgery and is manufactured by Axonics Modulation Technologies. The device is made of polyester fabric and takes(...) Read More
  • Bunions, medically known as hallux valgus, are bony bumps that form on the joint at the base of the big toe. This condition develops when the big toe pushes against the next toe, leading to misalignment of the bones of the big toe, which in turn causes the joint at its base to stick out. The(...) Read More
  • Coronary artery bypass surgery is a surgical procedure that creates a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or partially blocked artery in the heart. A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is done by taking a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and connecting it to an(...) Read More
  • Cardiac refers to the heart. The term can be used to describe anything related to the heart or affecting the heart. For example, cardiac arrest is a medical emergency in which the heart stops beating and can be caused by many different factors, such as a heart attack or an electrical(...) Read More
  • Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart stops pumping blood to the body and brain. This is usually due to a severe heart condition, such as a heart attack, or an electrical problem. Cardiac arrest is a life-threatening emergency that can lead to death within minutes if not treated promptly. Read More
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a treatment to help your heart beat with the right rhythm. It uses a pacemaker to re-synchronize your heart’s electrical signals. The CRT system consists of three main parts: a pacemaker, an implanted lead, and an external controller. The pacemaker(...) Read More
  • A cardiologist is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and conditions of the heart and blood vessels. They often work in hospitals and clinics and may perform tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs) and echocardiograms, prescribe medications, and perform(...) Read More
  • Cardiomyopathy is a chronic and progressive heart condition characterized by abnormalities in the structure or function of the heart muscle. This condition affects the heart's ability to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. There are various types of cardiomyopathy, including(...) Read More
  • Cardioplegia is a pharmacological therapy administered during cardiac surgery to intentionally and temporarily arrest the heart. The cardioplegia solution is infused into the coronary circulation through the aorta and vena cava. The goal of cardioplegia is to provide an adequate amount of(...) Read More
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD), also known as heart disease, refers to a class of medical conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. It is a broad term that encompasses a range of disorders, each of which can have serious consequences for a person's health and well-being. CVD includes(...) Read More
  • Cardioversion is a medical procedure that uses quick, low-energy shocks to restore a regular heart rhythm. It's a treatment for serious arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The procedure is usually done in an emergency room or hospital by(...) Read More
  • A carotid stent system is a medical device used to treat carotid artery stenosis, which is a narrowing or blockage of one of the two major arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain. The stent is a small, wire mesh tube that is inserted into the narrowed portion of the carotid artery(...) Read More
  • A catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is inserted into the body to allow for the drainage of fluids, the delivery of medications, or the insertion of medical instruments. Catheters are commonly used in medical procedures such as urinary catheterization, angiography, and endoscopy. They can(...) Read More
  • Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine, occurring in genetically predisposed individuals. It is characterized by a severe intolerance to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, rye, and derivatives of these grains. When people with celiac(...) Read More
  • Centers of Excellence are healthcare facilities that specialize in providing tertiary care procedures that are challenging, expensive, and require specialized equipment and expertise. The Centers of Excellence have the necessary infrastructure to provide care for patients who have complex(...) Read More
  • Cerebral Angiography is a medical procedure that uses x-ray imaging guidance and an injection of contrast material to examine blood vessels in the brain. It may be used to diagnose strokes, aneurysms, and other problems with the blood vessels in the brain. It is also used to help plan(...) Read More
  • Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is one of the most preventable and treatable forms of cancer, thanks to the availability of screening tests and a vaccine that protects against human(...) Read More
  • Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is primarily spread to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often referred to as "kissing bugs," due to their tendency to bite the(...) Read More
  • Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It works by targeting rapidly dividing cells, which is a characteristic of cancer cells. However, because chemotherapy also affects some normal, fast-growing cells in the body, it can lead to side effects.(...) Read More
  • Childhood obesity is a complex health issue that has become increasingly prevalent worldwide. It occurs when a child is well above the normal weight for their age and height. This condition poses serious health risks not only during childhood but also throughout adulthood, leading to both(...) Read More
  • Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It primarily affects the small intestine and is characterized by severe diarrhea and dehydration, which can be fatal if untreated. The transmission of cholera is closely linked to inadequate access to clean water and(...) Read More
  • Chronic diseases refer to medical conditions or health conditions that persist over an extended period and often progress slowly. These conditions typically last for three months or longer and may not have a definitive cure, but they can be managed and controlled with proper medical care and(...) Read More
  • Chronic Heart Failure, often referred to simply as heart failure, is a medical condition characterized by the heart's inability to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. This chronic condition results from various cardiovascular disorders that weaken the heart muscle, impairing its(...) Read More
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. It is primarily caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most often from cigarette smoke. Individuals with COPD are at increased(...) Read More
  • Chronic pain is a complex and persistent condition that significantly impacts the lives of those affected. Unlike acute pain, which is a direct response to injury and is temporary, chronic pain persists for longer periods, often without a clear cause. This document aims to provide a(...) Read More
  • Chronic respiratory diseases refer to a group of long-term medical conditions that affect the respiratory system, which includes the airways, lungs, and associated structures. These conditions often lead to persistent difficulties in breathing and can significantly impact a person's overall(...) Read More
  • A clinical measure is a standard that is used to evaluate the performance of a healthcare provider or system. Clinical measures are important in ensuring that patients receive the best care possible. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) defines clinical measures as "standards(...) Read More
  • The cochlear implant is an electrical device that helps to hear. It may be a possibility for those who are unable to hear. An auditory implant is also known as a cochlear implant and it is an electronic medical device that can help some people with hearing loss or deafness. The implants work(...) Read More
  • Cold caps, also known as scalp cooling caps or cryotherapy caps, are devices that are used to reduce hair loss during chemotherapy treatment. They work by reducing the blood flow to the scalp and lowering the temperature of the scalp, which can help to prevent the chemotherapy drugs from(...) Read More
  • Colon cancer, also known as colorectal cancer, is a form of cancer that arises in the colon or rectum, parts of the large intestine that are crucial for the digestive process. It's a significant health concern worldwide and is among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Understanding(...) Read More
  • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), often referred to simply as heart failure, is a chronic medical condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently, leading to a buildup of fluid (congestion) in the lungs and other parts of the body. This condition can be categorized into two main(...) Read More
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is a medical therapy commonly used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other respiratory conditions. It involves the application of a steady, continuous flow of pressurized air to the airways during sleep. The CPAP device consists of a mask(...) Read More
  • Hospitals across the United States are held to a set of national standards for care and treatment processes, known as 'core measures'. These measures are designed to improve patient outcomes and reduce complications associated with common conditions. Compliance with these measures demonstrates(...) Read More
  • CoreValve is a type of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) device used in the treatment of aortic stenosis. Aortic stenosis is a condition where the aortic valve narrows, reducing blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body. TAVR is a minimally invasive procedure where the(...) Read More
  • Arteries can become constricted for various reasons, including blockages from plaque or inflammation. This can reduce blood flow to the heart and potentially lead to serious health complications. One way to detect constricted arteries is via Coronary angiography. This technique uses x-rays and(...) Read More
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), is a group of diseases that includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. It is the most common type of heart disease and is the leading cause of death globally. CAD occurs(...) Read More
  • A Coronary Dilatation Catheter, also known as a coronary angioplasty catheter, is a medical device used to open narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. The catheter is typically used during a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), which is a minimally invasive procedure used(...) Read More
  • Coronary Heart Disease, often abbreviated as CHD, is a cardiovascular condition characterized by the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to the heart muscle. This progressive disease is primarily caused by the buildup of fatty deposits,(...) Read More
  • COVID-19, also known as the novel coronavirus, first appeared in Wuhan, China towards the end of 2019. The causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, is a member of the coronavirus family, which includes viruses that can cause the common cold. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the(...) Read More
  • Cosmetic dentistry is a specialized field of dentistry focused on improving the appearance of a person's teeth, gums, and overall smile. It encompasses a wide range of procedures and techniques designed to address aesthetic concerns such as tooth discoloration, alignment, size, shape, and(...) Read More
  • CPR, or Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, is a lifesaving emergency procedure that is performed when the heart stops beating. Immediate action and administration of CPR can greatly increase the likelihood of survival. CPR can be performed by nearly anyone, regardless of age or fitness level. It(...) Read More
  • Cranial arteritis is a condition in which the blood vessels supplying the head and neck are inflamed and damaged. Likewise known as giant cell arteritis, cranial arteritis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including headaches, jaw pain, and vision problems. Cranial arteritis is a(...) Read More
  • Crohn's Disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that primarily affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, though it can involve any part of the digestive system from the mouth to the anus. It is classified under inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), with Ulcerative Colitis being the other main(...) Read More
  • Cryotherapy is the use of extreme cold to freeze and destroy diseased tissue. It is most commonly used to treat skin conditions, such as warts, but it can also be used to treat other conditions. The freezing temperatures of cryotherapy can damage the skin and cause side effects, such as pain,(...) Read More
  • CT angiography is a diagnostic tool that uses special X-ray equipment and an injected dye to help visualize arteries and blood vessels. This type of test can be used to assess blood flow to the brain, lungs, heart, kidneys, or other organs and tissues. CT angiography is generally safe(...) Read More
  • A CT scan, short for Computed Tomography scan, is a diagnostic imaging technique that utilizes X-rays and computer processing to generate cross-sectional images of the body. It's also known as a CAT scan (Computerized Axial Tomography). The process involves a series of X-ray images taken from(...) Read More
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems of the body, with its most prominent effects on the lungs and pancreas. It is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which plays a(...) Read More
  • D2 receptors are a particular dopamine receptor subtype that appears to be crucial in addiction. D2 receptors are located in the striatum, which is a key brain region for processing reinforcement signals from drugs of abuse. Many drugs of abuse increase dopamine release in the striatum and(...) Read More
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is a serious condition that occurs when a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forms in one or more of the deep veins in the body, usually in the legs. DVT can cause significant health issues because it can lead to complications such as pulmonary embolism, a(...) Read More
  • Dementia is a broad term that describes a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life. It encompasses a range of medical conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, which is the most common cause. Dementia is characterized by a deterioration in memory, thinking,(...) Read More
  • Dementia pugilistica, or chronic traumatic encephalopathy, is a type of dementia that is caused by repeated blows to the head. It is a degenerative condition that results in the loss of brain function. This condition is most common among former boxers, but it can also occur in other contact(...) Read More
  • Dental implants are one of the most successful and predictable procedures available in dentistry today. With a success rate of over 95%, they offer patients a very high chance of having their implant procedure go smoothly with minimal complications. Dental implants can be used to(...) Read More
  • Diabetes, a chronic metabolic disorder, is a term that encompasses a group of diseases characterized by elevated blood glucose levels, commonly known as blood sugar. This condition arises due to the body's inability to effectively produce or utilize insulin, a hormone essential for regulating(...) Read More
  • Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes affecting the eyes. It occurs when high blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. Over time, these damaged blood vessels can leak fluid or bleed, causing vision problems and(...) Read More
  • Diastolic heart failure is a type of heart failure in which the heart's left ventricle fails to relax and fill with blood properly. This type of heart failure is caused by the inability of the left ventricle to relax and fill with blood during diastole, the period of the heart's cycle when it(...) Read More
  • Diverticulitis is a condition that arises when small, bulging pouches (diverticula) in the digestive tract become inflamed or infected. These pouches can develop anywhere in the digestive system, but they most commonly form in the colon (the lower part of the large intestine). The presence of(...) Read More
  • Dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) is a type of imaging technique used to measure bone mineral density (BMD). It is a non-invasive method of measuring the amount of calcium and other minerals in bones. DPA works by using two low-energy photons to measure the amount of calcium and other minerals(...) Read More
  • The dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. It is a thick, tough, fibrous membrane composed of dense connective tissue. It is composed of two layers: an outer periosteal layer and an inner meningeal layer. The dura mater provides(...) Read More
  • Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder caused by damage to the nerves and muscles involved in speech production. It is characterized by slurred, slow, or otherwise distorted speech. Symptoms of dysarthria can include difficulty forming words, slurred speech, difficulty controlling the volume of(...) Read More
  • The ear canal is a tube that runs from the outer ear to the eardrum. It is lined with skin and contains small hairs and glands that produce earwax. The ear canal helps to protect the eardrum from dirt and debris, and it also helps to amplify sound waves as they travel to the(...) Read More
  • An echocardiogram is a non-invasive medical test that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce images of the heart. The test provides information about the heart's size, structure, and function, including the motion of the heart's walls, the pumping ability of the heart, and the(...) Read More
  • Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a common skin condition characterized by inflamed, itchy, red, and cracked areas of skin. It can affect individuals of any age but is most frequently seen in children. Eczema is part of what is known as the atopic triad, which also includes asthma(...) Read More
  • An Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a non-invasive medical test that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart. The ECG is obtained by placing electrodes on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. The electrodes detect the electrical signals generated by the heart and transmit them to(...) Read More
  • An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolyte separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly through the solvent. Examples of electrolytes include salts, acids, bases, and(...) Read More
  • Electromyography (EMG) is a technique used to measure the electrical activity of muscles. It is used to diagnose neuromuscular disorders, such as muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and carpal tunnel syndrome. EMG is also used to assess the health of muscles and the nerve(...) Read More
  • Emphysema is a chronic, progressive lung disease, which is classified under chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It primarily affects the alveoli, the tiny air sacs in the lungs, where gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Over time, the inner walls of the alveoli(...) Read More
  • Endometriosis is a chronic and often painful condition where tissue similar to the lining inside the uterus, called the endometrium, starts to grow outside the uterus. This misplaced tissue can be found on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the outer surface of the uterus, and other organs within(...) Read More
  • Endoscopy is a non-invasive medical procedure that uses an endoscope, a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to view the inside of the body. It is commonly used to diagnose and treat conditions in the digestive system, respiratory system, and urinary system. Endoscopy can(...) Read More
  • Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological) disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness. Anyone can develop epilepsy, and it affects both males and females of all races, ethnic(...) Read More
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a common condition that affects a man's ability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourse. While it's more common in older men, ED can occur at any age. Its prevalence and the degree of distress it(...) Read More
  • EsophyX is a medical device used in endoluminal fundoplication, a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). EsophyX is designed to recreate the barrier between the stomach and esophagus that is damaged in GERD, helping to prevent stomach acid(...) Read More
  • Estrogen-replacement therapy (ERT) is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) that is used to treat symptoms of menopause in women. ERT is used to replace the estrogen that the body is no longer producing due to menopause. ERT is typically prescribed to women who are experiencing symptoms(...) Read More
  • Eversense is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize diabetes management. It is a sensor that can be implanted under the skin and used to continuously monitor blood glucose levels. This information can then be transmitted to a mobile phone or another device, allowing people(...) Read More
  • Evolut PRO+ is a medical device used in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures for the treatment of aortic stenosis. The Evolut PRO+ is an advanced TAVR system that uses a self-expanding valve and a delivery system designed for ease of use and improved accuracy during(...) Read More
  • Evolut Pro is a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) device used to treat aortic stenosis, a narrowing of the aortic valve. It is a minimally invasive procedure that replaces the aortic valve without the need for open-heart surgery. The Evolut Pro is designed to provide a more secure(...) Read More
  • A type of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) device manufactured by Medtronic. The Evolut R is designed to treat aortic stenosis, a condition in which the aortic valve narrows and restricts blood flow from the heart to the body. The device is delivered to the heart through a(...) Read More
  • A facet rhizotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or destroying the nerve roots that supply the facet joints in the spine. The facet joints are small joints that help to stabilize and support the spine, and they can become painful if they become inflamed or damaged. The(...) Read More
  • Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a genetic disorder that is characterized by high levels of cholesterol and other fats (lipids) in the blood. People with FCH have an increased risk of developing heart disease and stroke, as these conditions are often caused by high levels of(...) Read More
  • Fibromyalgia is a complex and often misunderstood disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory, and mood issues. Researchers believe that fibromyalgia amplifies painful sensations by affecting the way your brain processes pain(...) Read More
  • Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is a highly infectious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. Three main types of influenza viruses cause human disease: Types A, B, and C, with Types A and B being responsible for seasonal epidemics of disease. The flu virus is known for its(...) Read More
  • Follicular unit transplantation (FUT) is a surgical procedure used to restore hair growth in people with hair loss or thinning hair. During the procedure, hair follicles are removed from a donor area on the scalp and transplanted into the recipient area. The donor's hair is typically taken(...) Read More
  • Food allergies are a significant and growing public health issue affecting individuals around the world, across all ages and backgrounds. An allergic reaction to food occurs when the body's immune system identifies a certain food or a component of food as harmful, triggering a protective(...) Read More
  • Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of disorders that cause progressive degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These lobes are responsible for a variety of functions, including decision-making, behavior, and language, and damage to these areas can lead to(...) Read More
  • Fungal infections, also known as mycoses, arise from the invasion of fungi and their spores in the body, leading to diseases that can affect various parts of the body, ranging from the skin, nails, and scalp to deeper tissue and organs. These infections can be broadly categorized into(...) Read More
  • Gain a neurological condition that can lead to dementia, aphasia, neurotic behavior, and subtle changes in personality and emotional regulation. There are many neurological conditions that can cause the symptoms you mentioned. Some examples include: Dementia: Dementia is a term used to(...) Read More
  • Gallbladder disease encompasses a range of conditions that affect the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver. The gallbladder's primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the digestion of fats. Gallbladder(...) Read More
  • Gallstones are hard particles that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located below the liver. The gallbladder's main function is to store bile, a fluid produced by the liver that helps digest fats. Gallstones can vary in size and composition, and their formation is influenced by several(...) Read More
  • Gastric refers to the stomach. The gastric system is responsible for breaking down and digesting food. It is made up of the stomach and a number of other organs, including the esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine. The process of digestion begins in the mouth and continues through(...) Read More
  • Gastric bypass, formally known as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, is a type of bariatric surgery primarily aimed at aiding significant weight loss in individuals with severe obesity. This surgical procedure involves creating a small pouch from the stomach and directly connecting it to the small(...) Read More
  • Gastric cancer, also known as stomach cancer, arises from the lining of the stomach and can spread or metastasize to other parts of the body. It's a disease that can be influenced by various factors including dietary habits, genetics, and environmental conditions. The progression and treatment(...) Read More
  • Gastroenterology is a medical specialty focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disorders related to the digestive system, which includes the organs responsible for digestion and nutrient absorption, such as the stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.(...) Read More
  • Genetic diseases are disorders caused by abnormalities in an individual's genetic makeup. They result from changes in the DNA sequence, often inherited from parents or occurring spontaneously. These diseases can range from single-gene mutations, like cystic fibrosis, to complex conditions(...) Read More
  • Genetic disorders are conditions caused by abnormalities in an individual's DNA. These abnormalities can range from a small mutation in a single gene to the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. Genetic disorders can affect any system in the body and can be(...) Read More
  • A geriatrician is a medical doctor who specializes in the care of older adults. Geriatricians are trained to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions that commonly affect older adults, including Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, heart disease, and diabetes. They are also trained to(...) Read More
  • Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, the health of which is vital for good vision. This damage is often caused by abnormally high pressure in your eye. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness for people over the age of 60. It can occur at any age but is(...) Read More
  • The glenoid is a shallow, curved socket that is part of the shoulder blade (scapula). It is located on the lateral side of the scapula and articulates with the head of the upper arm bone (humerus) to form the shoulder joint. The glenoid is covered with a layer of smooth cartilage, which allows(...) Read More
  • Gluten sensitivity, often referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), represents a condition distinct from celiac disease and wheat allergy. It involves adverse reactions to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, among individuals without celiac disease or wheat allergy.(...) Read More
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain. GnRH is released into the bloodstream and travels to the pituitary gland, where it stimulates the production and release of two other hormones: luteinizing hormone (LH) and(...) Read More
  • Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Known for its rapid transmission and a range of possible symptoms, it is one of the most common infectious bacteria worldwide. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports(...) Read More
  • A gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by sudden, severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in one or more joints, most often in the big toe. It's caused by hyperuricemia, a condition in which there is too much uric acid in the body. The excess uric acid can(...) Read More
  • Gum disease, also known as periodontal disease, is a condition that affects the gums and supporting structures of the teeth. It is caused by a buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that forms on the teeth. If not removed, plaque can harden into calculus (tartar), which can only be(...) Read More
  • Gynecare TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) is a type of surgical mesh that is used to treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. SUI is a condition in which a woman experiences leakage of urine during physical activity, such as coughing, sneezing, or exercising. Gynecare TVT is a(...) Read More
  • Harm reduction therapy is a treatment approach that aims to reduce the negative consequences of problematic behaviors, rather than focusing on eliminating the behaviors themselves. This approach is often used with people who struggle with substance use disorders or other behaviors that may be(...) Read More
  • Hashimoto's disease, also known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disorder that can cause hypothyroidism or underactive thyroid. With this condition, the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to inflammation and interfering with its ability to produce thyroid hormones.(...) Read More
  • A headache is a common and distressing pain or discomfort that is experienced in the head or upper neck area. It can vary in intensity, duration, and underlying causes. Headaches can be categorized into several types based on their characteristics: Tension Headache: The most common(...) Read More
  • A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, is a serious medical emergency that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle. This can be caused by a blood clot, a build-up of plaque in the arteries (atherosclerosis), or other(...) Read More
  • Heart failure, often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is a chronic condition in which the heart muscle is unable to pump blood as well as it should. This can be due to the heart being unable to fill with enough blood (diastolic heart failure) or the heart's inability to pump(...) Read More
  • Heart rate is the number of times the heart beats per minute (bpm). It is an important measure of cardiovascular health and fitness, as it reflects the efficiency of the heart's pumping function. A normal heart rate for adults is typically between 60 and 100 bpm but can vary based on(...) Read More
  • Heart valve disease encompasses a range of disorders affecting one or more of the valves in the heart. The heart has four valves: the mitral and aortic valves on the left, and the tricuspid and pulmonary valves on the right. These valves play a crucial role in directing blood flow through the(...) Read More
  • The heart has four valves that help regulate the flow of blood through the heart. The four valves are: The tricuspid valve, which is located between the right atrium and right ventricle The pulmonary valve, which is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery The(...) Read More
  • Heartburn is a common digestive discomfort characterized by a burning sensation or discomfort in the chest, often behind the breastbone. It occurs when stomach acid backs up into the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus). The medical term for this condition is(...) Read More
  • Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition characterized by elevated blood pressure within the arteries. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps it around the body. Hypertension occurs when this pressure(...) Read More
  • Hypoglossal nerve stimulators, also known as hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) devices, are medical devices used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients who have not adequately responded to or are unable to tolerate other treatments such as continuous positive airway pressure(...) Read More
  • Hypoglycemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low level of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body, particularly the brain, and maintaining blood sugar within a certain range is essential for normal bodily function. Read More
  • Hypoxemia is a condition in which the body is not getting enough oxygen. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including lung conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart problems, and other conditions that affect the ability of the body to deliver(...) Read More
  • Iatrogenic refers to harm that is caused by medical treatment or advice. It can refer to physical harm caused by a medical intervention, such as a surgical error or a medication side effect, or it can refer to psychological harm, such as a misdiagnosis that leads to unnecessary anxiety or(...) Read More
  • The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) is a nonprofit organization that works to improve the quality, safety, and value of healthcare around the world. IHI was founded in 1991 to advance healthcare systems by promoting evidence-based practices and innovative solutions. The organization(...) Read More
  • Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is a therapy used to improve circulation and prevent blood clots in the legs. It involves the use of inflatable compression sleeves or boots that are placed around the legs and inflated in a timed sequence. The sleeves or boots apply pressure to the(...) Read More
  • InterStim is a brand of neuromodulation devices that are used to treat urinary and bowel incontinence, as well as other conditions such as chronic pelvic pain and fecal incontinence. InterStim devices use electrical stimulation to help normalize the activity of the muscles and nerves in the(...) Read More
  • InterStim II is a brand of neuromodulation device used to treat urinary and bowel incontinence. It works by stimulating the sacral nerves, which control the bladder and bowel muscles. InterStim II is typically used as a treatment option for people who have not had success with other methods,(...) Read More
  • The Joint Commission is an independent, not-for-profit organization that accredits and certifies healthcare organizations and programs in the United States. The Joint Commission evaluates and accredits hospitals, nursing homes, ambulatory care facilities, and other types of healthcare(...) Read More
  • Kegel exercises are exercises that are designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. The pelvic floor muscles support the bladder, uterus (in women), and rectum, and they also play a role in sexual function. Kegel exercises are named after Dr. Arnold Kegel, who developed them in the(...) Read More
  • A condition in which the kidneys lose their ability to filter waste products and excess fluid from the blood. Kidney failure can be acute (sudden) or chronic (gradual). It can lead to serious complications, such as anemia, bone loss, and heart disease. Kidney failure requires treatment with(...) Read More
  • The lacrimal gland is a small, almond-shaped gland located in the upper, outer part of each eye socket. It produces tears, which are essential for maintaining the health and function of the eye. Tears are a complex mixture of water, oils, and other substances that help to lubricate, nourish,(...) Read More
  • Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication is a minimally invasive surgical procedure performed to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and related conditions. Named after its developer, Dr. Rudolph Nissen, this surgical technique aims to reinforce the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and(...) Read More
  • Large Vessel Occlusions refer to blockages in major arteries, commonly in the brain, obstructing blood flow. These occlusions typically involve significant arteries like the internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery, or basilar artery. LVOs are crucial in conditions like ischemic stroke,(...) Read More
  • Left Atrial Appendage Closure (LAAC) is a medical procedure used to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AFib). The left atrial appendage is a small, finger-like projection of tissue in the heart that is believed to be the source of blood clots that can cause strokes(...) Read More
  • The Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) is a small, ear-shaped pouch that is attached to the left atrium of the heart. It is located in the upper chamber of the heart and is responsible for storing a small amount of blood before it is pumped out of the heart. The LAA is not essential for the function(...) Read More
  • Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion (LAAO) is a medical procedure that involves sealing off the left atrial appendage (LAA), a small pouch connected to the left atrium of the heart. This procedure is typically performed in patients with atrial fibrillation (AFib) who are at risk of stroke, as(...) Read More
  • A Left Ventricular Assist Device, commonly referred to as an LVAD, is a mechanical pump designed to support or replace the pumping function of the left ventricle, one of the four chambers of the human heart. LVADs are typically used in individuals with severe heart failure, a condition where(...) Read More
  • LifeVest is a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) made by Zoll Medical Corporation. It is a device that is worn by patients at high risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). LifeVest is designed to monitor the patient's heart rate and rhythm and deliver an electrical shock if a(...) Read More
  • LINX is a medical device used in the treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). It is a small, flexible ring of magnets that is surgically implanted around the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to help prevent stomach acid from flowing back into the esophagus. The LINX device helps(...) Read More
  • LipiFlow is a medical device that is used to treat a condition called meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MGD is a common cause of dry eye syndrome, a condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears produced are of poor quality. LipiFlow uses heat and gentle pressure to(...) Read More
  • Liver cirrhosis is a progressive condition characterized by the irreversible scarring of the liver tissue, leading to impaired liver function. It can result from various causes, including excessive alcohol consumption (liver cirrhosis alcoholic) or autoimmune processes like primary biliary(...) Read More
  • Macronutrients are the nutrients that the body needs in large amounts to function properly. They include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and water. Carbohydrates provide energy for the body, proteins are used to build and repair tissues, fats provide energy and help with the absorption of(...) Read More
  • Mandibular Advancement Devices, commonly abbreviated as MADs, are oral appliances used in the treatment of sleep-related breathing disorders, particularly obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. These devices are designed to alleviate the symptoms and complications associated with these(...) Read More
  • A medical surgeon is a physician who specializes in performing surgeries to treat injuries, diseases, and deformities. They are trained in diagnosing conditions that require surgical interventions and performing operations using various surgical techniques. Medical surgeons may specialize in a(...) Read More
  • Micra is a small, pacemaker-like device manufactured by Medtronic, used to treat heart rhythm disorders. It is about one-tenth the size of a traditional pacemaker and is implanted directly into the heart without the need for leads or a visible bump under the skin. The device uses sensors to(...) Read More
  • Migraine is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, intense, and debilitating headaches, often accompanied by various other symptoms. These headaches typically last for several hours to several days and can significantly impact a person's daily life. Migraines affect about 15% of(...) Read More
  • The mitral valve is one of the four valves in the human heart, situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It plays a crucial role in regulating the blood flow within the heart. Also known as the bicuspid valve due to its two leaflets, the mitral valve ensures the unidirectional(...) Read More
  • Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the brain's ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles. People with narcolepsy experience excessive daytime sleepiness and may fall asleep suddenly and without warning. Other symptoms of narcolepsy include cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone),(...) Read More
  • A device used to administer fluids or medications through an intravenous (IV) line without the use of a needle. These systems use a small, blunt cannula or spike to puncture the skin and enter the vein, minimizing the risk of needle-related injuries and infection. Needleless IV systems are(...) Read More
  • Nerivio is a wearable device for treating acute pain, such as migraines or muscle spasms. The device uses transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to deliver pain-relieving pulses to the affected area through the skin. Nerivio is portable and can be worn on the arm or leg, allowing(...) Read More
  • Neurology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of disorders affecting the nervous system. This complex and vital system comprises the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and muscles. Neurologists are medical doctors who specialize in neurology and(...) Read More
  • Neuromodulation refers to the therapeutic technique of directly influencing or modulating the nervous system's activity to treat various medical conditions. This approach involves altering the function of neural circuits through targeted interventions, such as electrical stimulation, chemical(...) Read More
  • A non-invasive wearable device refers to a technology that can be comfortably worn on or attached to the body without causing any significant disruption or harm to the user's skin or physiological functions. Unlike invasive devices, which may require insertion or penetration into the body,(...) Read More
  • Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is a type of atrial fibrillation that occurs in the absence of significant valvular heart disease. In NVAF, irregular heartbeat is caused by disorganized electrical signals in the heart's upper chambers (atria), which can lead to an increased risk of(...) Read More
  • Obalon is a weight loss program that consists of a swallowing device filled with a gas-filled balloon. The device is designed to be swallowed and then filled with a non-toxic gas, which takes up space in the stomach and helps people feel full faster. This can lead to reduced food intake and(...) Read More
  • A medical condition characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to health problems such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease. Obesity is often measured using the body mass index (BMI), which compares a person's weight to their height. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered(...) Read More
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common and potentially serious sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. It results in temporary pauses in breathing, known as apneas, which can lead to oxygen desaturation and(...) Read More
  • Obtryx II is a medical device used to address stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women by providing pelvic floor support. It is manufactured by the Boston Scientific Corporation and consists of a mesh sling that is surgically placed beneath the urethra. The mesh sling is made of a(...) Read More
  • Oncology is a branch of medicine that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and research of cancer. It encompasses various medical disciplines, including medical oncology (treating cancer with medications), surgical oncology (performing cancer surgery), radiation oncology (using(...) Read More
  • Open heart surgery (OHS) is a type of surgery that involves opening the chest to access the heart. The procedure is typically performed under general anesthesia and requires the heart to be stopped and the blood to be redirected through a heart-lung machine. OHS is usually performed to treat(...) Read More
  • A healthcare professional who specializes in fitting and prescribing eyeglasses and contact lenses. Opticians work in optometry offices or eyewear stores, and may also be employed by hospitals or other healthcare facilities. In addition to fitting and prescribing eyewear, opticians may also(...) Read More
  • A type of device used to monitor and optimize the performance of medical equipment, such as ventilators, pumps, and monitoring devices. Optimizer Smart uses artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms to analyze real-time data from medical equipment and identify potential(...) Read More
  • A type of radiation treatment used to destroy cancer cells in the eye or surrounding tissue. Orbital radiotherapy is typically used to treat cancers of the eye, such as retinoblastoma or orbital lymphoma, or to palliate symptoms of advanced cancers that have spread to the eye. The treatment is(...) Read More
  • Orthopedics, also known as orthopedics, is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. Musculoskeletal conditions involve the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and related structures.(...) Read More
  • Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by the gradual breakdown of cartilage, the protective tissue that covers the ends of bones in joints. This condition primarily affects weight-bearing joints such as knee, hips, and spine, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced joint(...) Read More
  • A healthcare professional who practices osteopathy, a system of medicine that focuses on the relationship between the body's structure and function. Osteopaths use manual techniques, such as manipulation and massage, to diagnose and treat a range of conditions, including musculoskeletal pain,(...) Read More
  • Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut and reshaped to correct a deformity or improve function. Osteotomies may be performed on any bone in the body, but are most commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the tibia or femur. The procedure is typically used to correct(...) Read More
  • The process of introducing oxygen into the body, typically through breathing or medical intervention. Oxygenation is essential for the proper functioning of the body's cells and tissues and is necessary to maintain good health and prevent organ damage. Oxygenation may be impaired by a variety(...) Read More
  • The process of evaluating the amount of oxygen in the body and how it is being used. Oxygenation assessments may be performed using a variety of methods, including pulse oximetry, blood gas analysis, and oxygen saturation monitoring. Oxygenation assessments are typically done to diagnose and(...) Read More
  • A pacemaker is a small device that is implanted in the chest or abdomen to help regulate the heart's rhythm. It consists of a generator and one or more wires, called leads, that are placed in the heart. The generator sends out electrical signals to the heart through the leads, which help to(...) Read More
  • Pain management is a medical discipline focused on relieving and preventing pain. It involves a wide range of approaches, including medications, physical therapies, and interventional procedures. The goal of pain management is to help individuals suffering from pain to return to as normal a(...) Read More
  • Paravalvular regurgitation is a condition where blood leaks back into the heart through a gap or a space around a heart valve. This can occur after a heart valve replacement surgery, where the new valve does not fit tightly within the heart tissue and allows for some blood to escape.(...) Read More
  • Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder that primarily affects movement. It develops gradually, often starting with barely noticeable tremors in just one hand. Over time, the disease can lead to a variety of physical and cognitive changes. Causes and Risk(...) Read More
  • Pericardium effusion refers to the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, the double-layered membrane surrounding the heart. This condition can result from various causes, such as inflammation, infection, or cardiac injury, leading to increased pressure around the heart. As(...) Read More
  • Pillcam is a brand of capsule endoscopy device that is used to take pictures of the inside of the body. The Pillcam is a small, swallowable capsule that contains a camera and a light source. As it moves through the digestive tract, the camera takes pictures of the inside of the body and sends(...) Read More
  • The Portico Valve is a type of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) device used in the treatment of aortic stenosis. Aortic stenosis is a condition where the aortic valve narrows, reducing blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body. TAVR is a minimally invasive procedure(...) Read More
  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a form of dysautonomia, a malfunction of the autonomic nervous system. It is characterized by a drastic increase in heart rate upon assuming an upright position from a seated or lying position. Typically, the heart rate rises by 30 beats per(...) Read More
  • Primary care is the first point of contact that people have with the healthcare system. It refers to the healthcare services that are provided by a person's primary care provider (PCP), such as a family doctor, internist, or pediatrician. Primary care providers are responsible for coordinating(...) Read More
  • A prosthetic valve is a replacement heart valve that is surgically implanted into a person's heart to treat a diseased or damaged native heart valve. It is made of either bioprosthetic material (e.g. animal tissue) or man-made materials (e.g. metal or plastic). The goal of a prosthetic valve(...) Read More
  • A qualified health plan is a type of health insurance plan that meets certain standards and requirements set by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). To be considered a qualified health plan, a plan must: Offer a set of essential health benefits, which include coverage for things like(...) Read More
  • Quality assurance (QA) refers to the process of verifying that a product or service meets certain standards and requirements. In the healthcare context, quality assurance refers to the efforts that are made to ensure that healthcare services are provided in a safe, effective, and efficient(...) Read More
  • Quality care is healthcare that is effective, safe, timely, patient-centered, efficient, and equitable. It is healthcare that meets the needs and preferences of patients, and it is provided in a manner that is respectful of their dignity and rights. Many factors contribute to the quality of(...) Read More
  • In the healthcare context, radiation is often used for diagnostic purposes (such as X-rays and CT scans) and for therapeutic purposes (such as radiation therapy for cancer). It is important to carefully control and monitor exposure to radiation to minimize the risk of harm. Radiation can be(...) Read More
  • Radical prostatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the prostate gland, as well as some surrounding tissue. It is typically used to treat prostate cancer that has not spread beyond the prostate gland. There are several different approaches to radical prostatectomy,(...) Read More
  • Radiofrequency (RF) is a type of electromagnetic radiation that is used in a variety of medical procedures. RF energy can be used to heat tissues in the body, and this can be useful for a number of medical applications. One common use of RF energy in medicine is for the treatment of soft(...) Read More
  • RAST Test (Radioallergosorbent Test) is a type of allergy test that is used to determine if a person has an allergy to a particular substance. It is a blood test that measures the levels of specific antibodies in the blood that are produced in response to an allergy. RAST tests are(...) Read More
  • Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) is a healthcare practice that involves the use of technology to monitor patients' health and medical data remotely. It allows healthcare providers to collect and analyze a patient's vital signs, symptoms, and other health-related information from a distance,(...) Read More
  • In the healthcare context, retail devices may include products such as over-the-counter (OTC) medications, home diagnostic tests, and other products that can be purchased without a prescription. Retail devices may also include fitness trackers, smartwatches, and other wearable devices that are(...) Read More
  • SAPIEN 3 Ultra is an advanced transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) device used to treat aortic stenosis, a condition in which the aortic valve narrows and restricts blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body. The SAPIEN 3 Ultra is inserted through a small incision in the groin(...) Read More
  • A type of transcatheter heart valve, used in aortic valve replacement. The SAPIEN 3 Valve is a bioprosthetic valve made of porcine tissue and is designed for implantation without the need for open-heart surgery. The valve is delivered to the heart through a catheter and is expanded using a(...) Read More
  • Sapien XT is a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) device used in minimally invasive heart valve replacement procedures. It is designed to treat patients with aortic stenosis, a condition in which the aortic valve narrows, impeding blood flow to the rest of the body. The Sapien XT(...) Read More
  • Schizophrenia Spectrum refers to a continuum of psychotic disorders characterized by disturbances in thought processes, perceptions, emotions, and behavior. The spectrum encompasses a range of conditions, with varying degrees of severity and symptomatology, all sharing core features associated(...) Read More
  • A seizure is a sudden and abnormal electrical activity in the brain that can cause a temporary disturbance in a person's behavior, sensations, or consciousness. Seizures can vary in intensity, duration, and manifestations, ranging from mild, barely noticeable episodes to severe convulsions. Read More
  • Senile dementia is a type of dementia that is caused by the natural aging process. A decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment characterizes it. It is most common in people over 65 and is often accompanied by physical and psychological changes.(...) Read More
  • Sling surgery, also known as sling procedure or sling operation, is a medical intervention used to treat certain types of urinary incontinence, specifically stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. SUI is a condition characterized by the involuntary leakage of urine during activities that(...) Read More
  • The future of healthcare is in smart pills. Smart pills are a type of medical device that can be swallowed and dissolved in the stomach, releasing medication or other substances into the body. They are equipped with sensors that track vital signs and send data to a smartphone or tablet, which(...) Read More
  • Solyx™ is a brand name for a Single Incision Sling System, which is a type of medical device used for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). SUI is a condition where a person leaks urine during physical activity, such as coughing, laughing, or exercising. The Solyx™(...) Read More
  • Spatz3 is a type of gastric balloon device used in the treatment of obesity. It is a non-surgical, minimally invasive procedure where a silicone balloon is inflated in the stomach to create a feeling of fullness and reduce food intake. The device is temporary, typically remaining in place for(...) Read More
  • Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) is a minimally invasive therapy utilized for managing chronic pain. It involves the implantation of a small device, known as a spinal cord stimulator, into the epidural space near the spinal cord. The stimulator emits mild electrical impulses to interfere with the(...) Read More
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy is a genetic neuromuscular disorder characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, leading to progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. It is caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, impacting the production of(...) Read More
  • Stenting is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a small, expandable tube-like device called a "stent" into a narrowed or blocked blood vessel or other tubular structures within the body. Stents are commonly used to restore proper blood flow, provide structural support, and(...) Read More
  • Strep throat is an infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria. It primarily affects the throat and tonsils, leading to discomfort and inflammation. The symptoms of strep throat often include a sore throat, difficulty swallowing, swollen lymph nodes, fever, and sometimes white patches(...) Read More
  • Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a type of urinary incontinence that occurs when physical movement or activity, such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, or exercise, puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. This pressure can cause you to leak urine. SUI is the most common type of urinary(...) Read More
  • Stretta is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is a type of endoscopic procedure that uses radiofrequency energy to reduce the size of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). This helps to reduce the amount of acid that refluxes into the(...) Read More
  • The Supris Retropubic Sling System is a type of surgical device used to treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. It is a minimally invasive procedure that involves placing a sling around the urethra to provide support and prevent leakage. The sling is made of synthetic material and is(...) Read More
  • Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is a surgical procedure used to replace a damaged or diseased aortic valve. The aortic valve is a one-way valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta, the main artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body.(...) Read More
  • Surgical robots are robotic systems that are used to perform surgical procedures. These robots are designed to provide surgeons with greater precision, control, and accuracy during surgery. They can be used to perform a variety of procedures, including minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic(...) Read More
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to treat aortic stenosis, a condition in which the aortic valve narrows and restricts blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body. In TAVR, a replacement valve is delivered to the heart through(...) Read More
  • Transpyloric Shuttle (TPS) is a device used for the delivery of medication to the small intestine for the treatment of gastroparesis, a condition in which the stomach does not empty properly. The TPS is a tube with a small balloon on the end that is placed through the mouth, down the(...) Read More
  • Transvenous cardiac pacing is a medical procedure used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders. It involves the placement of a pacemaker, a small device that sends electrical signals to the heart, through a vein in the chest. The pacemaker helps to regulate the heart rate and rhythm,(...) Read More
  • Tru Tear is a new and innovative way to help dry eye sufferers get the relief they need. This unique product uses a patented technology that mimics the natural tears of the eye. This helps to provide a more comfortable and effective way to treat dry eye. Tru Tear is also safe for use with(...) Read More
  • Ultrasound refers to a medical imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to visualize internal structures of the body. It involves the use of a device called an ultrasound transducer, which emits sound waves and detects the echoes produced as they bounce back from different(...) Read More
  • Urgent care refers to a category of medical services that provides immediate, non-life-threatening healthcare for individuals in need of prompt medical attention. These facilities are designed to bridge the gap between primary care physicians and emergency rooms, offering accessible and timely(...) Read More
  • Urinary incontinence is a medical condition characterized by the inability to control the release of urine from the bladder. It can occur due to a variety of factors including nerve damage, muscle weakness, urinary tract infections, and certain medications. Symptoms can range from minor(...) Read More
  • UroLift is a new, minimally invasive treatment option for men with an enlarged prostate. It involves placing small metal implants in the prostate gland to open up the urethra and improve urinary flow. There is no need for general anesthesia or a hospital stay, and recovery is typically quick.(...) Read More
  • Vaccination is a medical procedure that involves the administration of a weakened or killed form of a virus, bacteria, or another pathogen to stimulate the body's immune system to develop immunity to a particular disease. Vaccines are typically administered through injection, but can also be(...) Read More
  • The Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) System is a medical device used to treat certain types of epilepsy and depression. It is a surgically implanted device that delivers electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve, which is located in the neck. The stimulation is delivered through a small generator(...) Read More
  • Valvular Atrial Fibrillation (VAF) is a type of atrial fibrillation (AF) that occurs in patients with certain heart valve conditions, such as mitral stenosis or prosthetic heart valves. In VAF, the electrical signals in the heart that control its rhythm become disorganized and chaotic, causing(...) Read More
  • VBLOC is a type of weight loss device that works by blocking electrical signals that stimulate hunger between the brain and the stomach. VBLOC, which stands for Vagus Nerve Block Therapy, uses an implantable device to interrupt the nerve signals that control hunger and fullness, thereby(...) Read More
  • Virtual Reality Therapy, also known as Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) or Virtual Reality-based Therapy (VRT), is a therapeutic approach that utilizes immersive virtual reality technology to simulate real-life environments and situations in a controlled and safe manner. It is designed(...) Read More
  • The WATCHMAN FLX Device is indicated to reduce the risk of thromboembolism, including stroke, in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who are at risk for stroke and not candidates for oral anticoagulation (OAC). The device is implanted in the left atrial appendage (LAA) and is(...) Read More
  • Weight loss refers to the process of losing body weight through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. The most effective way to lose weight is to create a calorie deficit, which means burning more calories than you consume. This can be achieved by reducing your calorie(...) Read More
  • X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, a type of energy that travels in waves. They have a shorter wavelength and higher frequency than visible light. X-rays are commonly used in medical imaging to create images of the inside of the body. They pass through soft tissues but are(...) Read More
  • Xanthelasma is a yellowish patch of cholesterol deposits that typically appear on the eyelids. It is usually painless and harmless but can be a sign of high cholesterol levels in the blood. Treatment options include topical creams, laser therapy, and surgical removal. Read More
  • Xanthoma refers to a skin condition characterized by the development of yellowish, flat or raised lesions or nodules. These lesions occur due to the accumulation of fat deposits beneath the skin. Xanthomas are typically painless and can occur in various locations throughout the body, including(...) Read More
  • Yellow fever is a virus that is spread by mosquitoes. The symptoms of yellow fever include fever, headache, and vomiting. If you develop these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor immediately. There is no specific cure for yellow fever, but there are treatments that can help relieve the(...) Read More
  • For those with severe COPD/emphysema, the Zephyr Valve Treatment is a minimally invasive option. An implant called the Zephyr Valve is made to fit in the lungs' airways. The valves are an alternative to the more invasive standard lung volume reduction surgery and are inserted in a few selected(...) Read More
  • Zonules, also known as zonular fibers or suspensory ligaments, are delicate, transparent fibers that help to suspend and position the lens within the eye. They are crucial for maintaining the shape and function of the lens, allowing it to focus light onto the retina for clear(...) Read More

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