Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. It is primarily caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most often from cigarette smoke. Individuals with COPD are at increased risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer, and a variety of other conditions.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Causes and Risk Factors

The primary cause of COPD is tobacco smoking, but non-smokers can also get COPD through exposure to air pollution, dust, and chemical fumes in the workplace. Rare genetic factors, like a deficiency in alpha-1 antitrypsin, can also contribute to the development of COPD.


COPD symptoms often don’t appear until significant lung damage has occurred, and they usually worsen over time, particularly if smoking exposure continues. Common symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath, especially during physical activities
  • Wheezing
  • Chest tightness
  • A chronic cough that may produce mucus (sputum) that may be clear, white, yellow or greenish
  • Frequent respiratory infections
  • Lack of energy
  • Unintended weight loss (in later stages)
  • Swelling in ankles, feet, or legs


Diagnosis of COPD involves a review of the individual’s medical history, a physical exam, and lung function tests, including spirometry, which measures the amount of air a person can inhale and exhale, and the speed of the airflow.


While there’s no cure for COPD, its progression can be slowed, and the severity of its symptoms can be reduced with treatment. Key strategies include:

  • Quitting smoking
  • Medications, including bronchodilators (which relax the muscles around the airways) and corticosteroids (which reduce inflammation in the airways)
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of education and exercise classes that teach you about your respiratory system, how to exercise and breathe more easily, and how to live better with your condition
  • Oxygen therapy for those with severe COPD and low levels of oxygen in their blood
  • Surgical options for those with more severe COPD or who have not responded to other treatments, including lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplant, and bullectomy


Preventing COPD primarily involves avoiding or quitting smoking and reducing exposure to harmful gases and particulate matter. Early detection through screening can also play a crucial role in managing COPD for individuals at high risk.

Managing COPD is a long-term commitment that includes lifestyle changes, medication, and possibly surgery, but with the right care, individuals can achieve a better quality of life. Regular follow-ups with healthcare providers are essential for monitoring and adjusting treatment as the disease progresses.

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