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Endometriosis is a chronic and often painful condition where tissue similar to the lining inside the uterus, called the endometrium, starts to grow outside the uterus. This misplaced tissue can be found on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the outer surface of the uterus, and other organs within the pelvis. In very rare cases, endometrial tissue may spread beyond the pelvic region.



The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but several theories exist, including:

  • Retrograde menstruation: This theory suggests that during menstruation, some of the menstrual blood flows back through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity instead of leaving the body. This blood contains endometrial cells, which then stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over each menstrual cycle.
  • Embryonic cell transformation: Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells — cells in the earliest stages of development — into endometrial cell implants during puberty.
  • Surgical scar implantation: After surgeries such as a hysterectomy or C-section, the endometrial cells may attach to the surgical incision.
  • Immune system disorder: A problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial-like tissue that’s growing outside the uterus.


Symptoms of endometriosis can vary, but they commonly include:

  • Pelvic pain: The most noticeable symptom is pelvic pain, often associated with menstrual periods. Although many experience cramping during their menstrual period, those with endometriosis typically describe menstrual pain that’s far worse than usual. Pain may also increase over time.
  • Menstrual irregularities: Heavy periods (menorrhagia) or bleeding between periods.
  • Infertility: Endometriosis is first diagnosed in some women who are seeking infertility treatment.

Other symptoms can include pain with intercourse, pain with bowel movements or urination, fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, and nausea, especially during menstrual periods.


Diagnosing endometriosis involves a combination of patient history, physical examinations, imaging tests (such as ultrasounds or MRIs), and sometimes surgical procedures like laparoscopy, which allows a physician to see inside the abdomen and obtain tissue samples (biopsies) for testing.


While there is no cure for endometriosis, its symptoms can be managed through a combination of approaches:

  • Pain medication: Over-the-counter pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs can help ease menstrual cramps and pain.
  • Hormone therapy: Treatments aiming to reduce or eliminate menstruation, such as hormonal contraceptives, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists, progestin therapy, and aromatase inhibitors, can help slow endometrial tissue growth and reduce symptoms.
  • Surgical options: For those with severe symptoms or those looking to become pregnant, surgery to remove as much endometriosis as possible while preserving the uterus and ovaries may be an option. In severe cases, a hysterectomy with removal of the ovaries may be considered.
  • Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): For women experiencing infertility due to endometriosis, treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be recommended.

Living with Endometriosis

Living with endometriosis can be challenging both physically and emotionally. Many find relief through medical treatments, but lifestyle changes, support groups, and therapy can also play a significant role in managing the condition. Since it is a chronic illness, long-term management strategies are essential for improving quality of life.

Understanding and awareness of endometriosis have grown, but it remains a condition that requires further research to fully unravel its causes and to develop more effective treatments and diagnostic methods.

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